In PloS one ; h5-index 176.0
Abcg2/Bcrp and Abcb1a/Pgp are xenobiotic efflux transporters limiting substrate permeability in the gastrointestinal system and brain, and increasing renal and hepatic drug clearance. The systemic impact of Bcrp and Pgp ablation on metabolic homeostasis of endogenous substrates is incompletely understood. We performed untargeted metabolomics of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma, transcriptomics of brain, liver and kidney from male Sprague Dawley rats (WT) and Bcrp/Pgp double knock-out (dKO) rats, and integrated metabolomic/transcriptomic analysis to identify putative substrates and perturbations in canonical metabolic pathways. A predictive Bayesian machine learning model was used to predict in silico those metabolites with greater substrate-like features for either transporters. The CSF and plasma levels of 169 metabolites, nutrients, signaling molecules, antioxidants and lipids were significantly altered in dKO rats, compared to WT rats. These metabolite changes suggested alterations in histidine, branched chain amino acid, purine and pyrimidine metabolism in the dKO rats. Levels of methylated and sulfated metabolites and some primary bile acids were increased in dKO CSF or plasma. Elevated uric acid levels appeared to be a primary driver of changes in purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis. Alterations in Bcrp/Pgp dKO CSF levels of antioxidants, precursors of neurotransmitters, and uric acid suggests the transporters may contribute to the regulation of a healthy central nervous system in rats. Microbiome-generated metabolites were found to be elevated in dKO rat plasma and CSF. The altered dKO metabolome appeared to cause compensatory transcriptional change in urate biosynthesis and response to lipopolysaccharide in brain, oxidation-reduction processes and response to oxidative stress and porphyrin biosynthesis in kidney, and circadian rhythm genes in liver. These findings present insight into endogenous functions of Bcrp and Pgp, the impact that transporter substrates, inhibitors or polymorphisms may have on metabolism, how transporter inhibition could rewire drug sensitivity indirectly through metabolic changes, and identify functional Bcrp biomarkers.
Ganguly Samit, Finkelstein David, Shaw Timothy I, Michalek Ryan D, Zorn Kimberly M, Ekins Sean, Yasuda Kazuto, Fukuda Yu, Schuetz John D, Mukherjee Kamalika, Schuetz Erin G