In Multimedia systems
Literature survey shows that convolutional neural network (CNN)-based pretrained models have been largely used for CoronaVirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) classification using chest X-ray (CXR) and computed tomography (CT) datasets. However, most of the methods have used a smaller number of data samples for both CT and CXR datasets for training, validation, and testing. As a result, the model might have shown good performance during testing, but this type of model will not be more effective on unseen COVID-19 data samples. Generalization is an important term to be considered while designing a classifier that can perform well on completely unseen datasets. Here, this work proposes a large-scale learning with stacked ensemble meta-classifier and deep learning-based feature fusion approach for COVID-19 classification. The features from the penultimate layer (global average pooling) of EfficientNet-based pretrained models were extracted and the dimensionality of the extracted features reduced using kernel principal component analysis (PCA). Next, a feature fusion approach was employed to merge the features of various extracted features. Finally, a stacked ensemble meta-classifier-based approach was used for classification. It is a two-stage approach. In the first stage, random forest and support vector machine (SVM) were applied for prediction, then aggregated and fed into the second stage. The second stage includes logistic regression classifier that classifies the data sample of CT and CXR into either COVID-19 or Non-COVID-19. The proposed model was tested using large CT and CXR datasets, which are publicly available. The performance of the proposed model was compared with various existing CNN-based pretrained models. The proposed model outperformed the existing methods and can be used as a tool for point-of-care diagnosis by healthcare professionals.
Ravi Vinayakumar, Narasimhan Harini, Chakraborty Chinmay, Pham Tuan D
COVID-19, CT scan, Chest X-rays, Computer-aided diagnosis, Deep learning, Feature fusion, Meta-classifier, Stacked classifier, Transfer learning