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In Journal of education and health promotion

BACKGROUND : The flipped classroom pedagogy allows students to introduce a topic and gather their own meanings outside of the classroom, then explore the topic and create their meanings or exclude their misconceptions during class. Our aim was to enhance the ability of self-directed learning (SDL) among medical undergraduates. Pedagogical benefits of the model are highlighted along with potential challenges to its use.

MATERIAL AND METHODS : Kemp's Instructional model was used to design flipped classroom. Need analysis was done to assess the perceptions of the students on the current teaching practices and their expectations for adoption of innovative methods. Validation of content was done by Delphi method by subject experts across the institutions. Content included objectives; case scenarios and extended multiple choice questions. Students were divided into two groups. Group A and Group B, 50 in each. A topic was given 1 week prior and both groups were subjected to a pretest to identify their self-study performance. Group A was exposed to 4 sessions of flipped classroom. They were provided with PowerPoint slides with voice recordings. In the classroom, first 30 min was meant for quiz and next 30 min was meant to clarify the doubts. Group B were exposed to the 4 regular lecture sessions. Both the groups were subjected to the posttest and test after 4 weeks. Later with another topic, flipped classroom was conducted for all the 100 students and the feedback was taken from all the students and faculty using a validated questionnaire.

RESULTS : Posttest scores of students who were flipped were statistically significant (p < 0.001). Most (98%) students opined that these interactive sessions evoked interest in the topic. Flipped classroom sessions were found to be effective in improving students' learning behavior toward SDL, collaborative learning skills and critically analyzing the basic concepts.

CONCLUSIONS : By following a systematic process (Kemp's instructional Model, it is possible to design need-based flipped classroom sessions. They are found to be effective in improving students' learning behavior toward deep learning, self-efficacy, SDL, collaborative learning skills, critically analyzing the basic concepts. In a flipped classroom, "the learning environment transforms into a dynamic and more social space where students can participate in critiques or work through problems in teams.

Padugupati Suhasini, Joshi Krishna Prakash, Chacko Thomas V, Jamadar Deepak


Collaborative learning, “Kemps instructional model”, flipped classroom, self-directed learning