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In Frontiers in pediatrics

Leukemia is the most common malignancy affecting children. The morphologic analysis of bone marrow smears is an important initial step for diagnosis. Recent publications demonstrated that artificial intelligence is able to classify blood cells but a long way from clinical use. A total of 1,732 bone marrow images were used for the training of a convolutional neural network (CNN). New techniques of deep learning were integrated and an end-to-end leukemia diagnosis system was developed by using raw images without pre-processing. The system creatively imitated the workflow of a hematologist by detecting and excluding uncountable and crushed cells, then classifying and counting the remain cells to make a diagnosis. The performance of the CNN in classifying WBCs achieved an accuracy of 82.93%, precision of 86.07% and F1 score of 82.02%. And the performance in diagnosing acute lymphoid leukemia achieved an accuracy of 89%, sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 95%. The system also performs well at detecting the bone marrow metastasis of lymphoma and neuroblastoma, achieving an average accuracy of 82.93%. This is the first study which included a wider variety of cell types in leukemia diagnosis, and achieved a relatively high performance in real clinical scenarios.

Zhou Min, Wu Kefei, Yu Lisha, Xu Mengdi, Yang Junjun, Shen Qing, Liu Bo, Shi Lei, Wu Shuang, Dong Bin, Wang Hansong, Yuan Jiajun, Shen Shuhong, Zhao Liebin


artificial intelligence, computer-aided diagnose, deep learning, leukemia, morphological diagnosis