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In Frontiers in neuroinformatics

Non-invasive whole-brain scans aid the diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorder diseases such as autism, dementia, and brain cancer. The assessable analysis for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is rationally challenging due to the limitations of publicly available datasets. For diagnostic or prognostic tools, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) exposed affirmation to the biomarkers in neuroimaging research because of fMRI pickup inherent connectivity between the brain and regions. There are profound studies in ASD with introducing machine learning or deep learning methods that have manifested advanced steps for ASD predictions based on fMRI data. However, utmost antecedent models have an inadequacy in their capacity to manipulate performance metrics such as accuracy, precision, recall, and F1-score. To overcome these problems, we proposed an avant-garde DarkASDNet, which has the competence to extract features from a lower level to a higher level and bring out promising results. In this work, we considered 3D fMRI data to predict binary classification between ASD and typical control (TC). Firstly, we pre-processed the 3D fMRI data by adopting proper slice time correction and normalization. Then, we introduced a novel DarkASDNet which surpassed the benchmark accuracy for the classification of ASD. Our model's outcomes unveil that our proposed method established state-of-the-art accuracy of 94.70% to classify ASD vs. TC in ABIDE-I, NYU dataset. Finally, we contemplated our model by performing evaluation metrics including precision, recall, F1-score, ROC curve, and AUC score, and legitimize by distinguishing with recent literature descriptions to vindicate our outcomes. The proposed DarkASDNet architecture provides a novel benchmark approach for ASD classification using fMRI processed data.

Ahammed Md Shale, Niu Sijie, Ahmed Md Rishad, Dong Jiwen, Gao Xizhan, Chen Yuehui


ABIDE, DarkASDNet, autism spectrum disorder, deep learning, fMRI, image processing, neuroimaging