In Applied soft computing
The new type of coronavirus, COVID 19, appeared in China at the end of 2019. It has become a pandemic that is spreading all over the world in a very short time. The detection of this disease, which has serious health and socio-economic damages, is of vital importance. COVID-19 detection is performed by applying PCR and serological tests. Additionally, COVID detection is possible using X-ray and computed tomography images. Disease detection has an important position in scientific researches that includes artificial intelligence methods. The combined models, which consist of different phases, are frequently used for classification problems. In this paper, a new combined approach is proposed to detect COVID-19 cases using deep features obtained from X-ray images. Two main variances of the approach can be presented as single layer-based (SLB) and feature fusion-based (FFB). SLB model consists of pre-processing, deep feature extraction, post-processing, and classification phases. On the other side, the FFB model consists of pre-processing, deep feature extraction, feature fusion, post-processing, and classification phases. Four different SLB and six different FFB models were developed according to the number and binary combination of layers used in the feature extraction phase. Each model is employed for binary and multi-class classification experiments. According to experimental results, the accuracy performance for COVID-19 and no-findings classification of the proposed FFB3 model is 99.52%, which is better than the best performance accuracy (of 98.08%) in the literature. Concurrently, for multi-class classification, the proposed FFB3 model has an accuracy performance of 87.64% outperforming the best existing work (which reported an 87.02% classification performance). Various metrics, including sensitivity, specificity, precision, and F1-score metrics are used for performance analysis. For all performance metrics, the FFB3 model recorded a higher success rate than existing work in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, these accuracy rates are the best in the literature for the dataset and data split type (five-fold cross-validation). Composite models (SLBs and FFBs), which are generated in this paper, are successful ways to detect COVID-19. Experimental results show that feature extraction, pre-processing, post-processing, and hyperparameter tuning are the steps are necessary to obtain a higher success. For prospective works, different types of pre-trained models and other hyperparameter tuning methods can be implemented.
COVID-19 detection in X-ray images, Data processing, Deep features, Feature extraction, Feature fusion, Pre-trained models