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In Chaos (Woodbury, N.Y.)

In this study, we used machine learning techniques to reconstruct the wavelength dependence of the absorption coefficient of human normal and pathological colorectal mucosa tissues. Using only diffuse reflectance spectra from the ex vivo mucosa tissues as input to algorithms, several approaches were tried before obtaining good matching between the generated absorption coefficients and the ones previously calculated for the mucosa tissues from invasive experimental spectral measurements. Considering the optimized match for the results generated with the multilayer perceptron regression method, we were able to identify differentiated accumulation of lipofuscin in the absorption coefficient spectra of both mucosa tissues as we have done before with the corresponding results calculated directly from invasive measurements. Considering the random forest regressor algorithm, the estimated absorption coefficient spectra almost matched the ones previously calculated. By subtracting the absorption of lipofuscin from these spectra, we obtained similar hemoglobin ratios at 410/550 nm: 18.9-fold/9.3-fold for the healthy mucosa and 46.6-fold/24.2-fold for the pathological mucosa, while from direct calculations, those ratios were 19.7-fold/10.1-fold for the healthy mucosa and 33.1-fold/17.3-fold for the pathological mucosa. The higher values obtained in this study indicate a higher blood content in the pathological samples used to measure the diffuse reflectance spectra. In light of such accuracy and sensibility to the presence of hidden absorbers, with a different accumulation between healthy and pathological tissues, good perspectives become available to develop minimally invasive spectroscopy methods for in vivo early detection and monitoring of colorectal cancer.

Fernandes Luís, Carvalho Sónia, Carneiro Isa, Henrique Rui, Tuchin Valery V, Oliveira Hélder P, Oliveira Luís M