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In Journal of clinical gastroenterology

GOAL : The goal of this study was to evaluate an artificial intelligence approach, namely deep learning, on clinical text in electronic health records (EHRs) to identify patients with cirrhosis.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS : Accurate identification of cirrhosis in EHR is important for epidemiological, health services, and outcomes research. Currently, such efforts depend on International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes, with limited success.

MATERIALS AND METHODS : We trained several machine learning models using discharge summaries from patients with known cirrhosis from a patient registry and random controls without cirrhosis or its complications based on ICD codes. Models were validated on patients for whom discharge summaries were manually reviewed and used as the gold standard test set. We tested Naive Bayes and Random Forest as baseline models and a deep learning model using word embedding and a convolutional neural network (CNN).

RESULTS : The training set included 446 cirrhosis patients and 689 controls, while the gold standard test set included 139 cirrhosis patients and 152 controls. Among the machine learning models, the CNN achieved the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.993), with a precision of 0.965 and recall of 0.978, compared with 0.879 and 0.981 for the Naive Bayes and Random Forest, respectively (precision 0.787 and 0.958, and recalls 0.878 and 0.827). The precision by ICD codes for cirrhosis was 0.883 and recall was 0.978.

CONCLUSIONS : A CNN model trained on discharge summaries identified cirrhosis patients with high precision and recall. This approach for phenotyping cirrhosis in the EHR may provide a more accurate assessment of disease burden in a variety of studies.

Obeid Jihad S, Khalifa Ali, Xavier Brandon, Bou-Daher Halim, Rockey Don C