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In Clinical and experimental emergency medicine

OBJECTIVE : Recent studies have suggested that deep-learning models can satisfactorily assist in fracture diagnosis. We aimed to evaluate the performance of two of such models in wrist fracture detection.

METHODS : We collected image data of patients who visited with wrist trauma at the emergency department. A dataset extracted from January 2018 to May 2020 was split into training (90%) and test (10%) datasets, and two types of convolutional neural networks (i.e., DenseNet-161 and ResNet-152) were trained to detect wrist fractures. Gradient-weighted class activation mapping was used to highlight the regions of radiograph scans that contributed to the decision of the model. Performance of the convolutional neural network models was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve.

RESULTS : For model training, we used 4,551 radiographs from 798 patients and 4,443 radiographs from 1,481 patients with and without fractures, respectively. The remaining 10% (300 radiographs from 100 patients with fractures and 690 radiographs from 230 patients without fractures) was used as a test dataset. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of DenseNet-161 and ResNet-152 in the test dataset were 90.3%, 90.3%, 80.3%, 95.6%, and 90.3% and 88.6%, 88.4%, 76.9%, 94.7%, and 88.5%, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves of DenseNet-161 and ResNet-152 for wrist fracture detection were 0.962 and 0.947, respectively.

CONCLUSION : We demonstrated that DenseNet-161 and ResNet-152 models could help detect wrist fractures in the emergency room with satisfactory performance.

Kim Min Woong, Jung Jaewon, Park Se Jin, Park Young Sun, Yi Jeong Hyeon, Yang Won Seok, Kim Jin Hyuck, Cho Bum-Joo, Ha Sang Ook

2021-Jun

Deep learning, Fractures, bone, Neural networks, computer, Wrist