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In Clinical & experimental ophthalmology

The prominent rise of digital health in ophthalmology is evident in the current age of Industry 4.0. Despite the many facets of digital health, there has been a greater slant in interest and focus on artificial intelligence recently. Other major elements of digital health such as mobile health could also substantially impact patient-focused outcomes but have been relatively less explored and discussed. In this review, we adopted a narrative approach to comprehensively evaluate the use of non-AI digital health tools in ophthalmology. 53 papers were included in this systematic review, with 25 papers dealing with virtual or augmented reality, 14 with mobile applications, and 14 with wearables. Most papers focused on the use of these technologies to detect or rehabilitate visual impairment, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration. Overall, the findings present encouraging improvements on patient-focused outcomes with the adoption of these technologies. Further validation or large-scale studies and earlier consideration of real-world barriers are warranted to enable better real-world implementation.

Tseng Rachel Marjorie Wei Wen, Tham Yih-Chung, Rim Tyler Hyungtaek, Cheng Ching-Yu


Digital health, mHealth, ophthalmology, virtual reality, wearables