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In Computational and mathematical methods in medicine

Deep convolutional networks have become a powerful tool for medical imaging diagnostic. In pathology, most efforts have been focused in the subfield of histology, while cytopathology (which studies diagnostic tools at the cellular level) remains underexplored. In this paper, we propose a novel deep learning model for cancer detection from urinary cytopathology screening images. We leverage recent ideas from the field of multioutput neural networks to provide a model that can efficiently train even on small-scale datasets, such as those typically found in real-world scenarios. Additionally, we argue that calibration (i.e., providing confidence levels that are aligned with the ground truth probability of an event) has been a major shortcoming of prior works, and we experiment a number of techniques to provide a well-calibrated model. We evaluate the proposed algorithm on a novel dataset, and we show that the combination of focal loss, multiple outputs, and temperature scaling provides a model that is significantly more accurate and calibrated than a baseline deep convolutional network.

Lilli L, Giarnieri E, Scardapane S