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In Journal of medical imaging and radiation oncology

Deep learning (DL) has shown rapid advancement and considerable promise when applied to the automatic detection of diseases using CXRs. This is important given the widespread use of CXRs across the world in diagnosing significant pathologies, and the lack of trained radiologists to report them. This review article introduces the basic concepts of DL as applied to CXR image analysis including basic deep neural network (DNN) structure, the use of transfer learning and the application of data augmentation. It then reviews the current literature on how DNN models have been applied to the detection of common CXR abnormalities (e.g. lung nodules, pneumonia, tuberculosis and pneumothorax) over the last few years. This includes DL approaches employed for the classification of multiple different diseases (multi-class classification). Performance of different techniques and models and their comparison with human observers are presented. Some of the challenges facing DNN models, including their future implementation and relationships to radiologists, are also discussed.

Moses Daniel A


CXR, artificial intelligence, chest X-rays, deep learning, neural networks