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In Se pu = Chinese journal of chromatography

In "shotgun" proteomics strategy, the proteome is explained by analyzing tryptic digested peptides using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In this strategy, the retention time of peptides in liquid chromatography separation can be predicted based on the peptide sequence. This is a useful feature for peptide identification. Therefore, the prediction of the retention time has attracted much research attention. Traditional methods calculate the physical and chemical properties of the peptides based on their amino acid sequence to obtain the retention time under certain chromatography conditions; however, these methods cannot be directly adopted for other chromatography conditions, nor can they be used across laboratories or instrument platforms. To solve this problem, in recent years, deep learning was introduced to proteomics research for retention time prediction. Deep learning is an advanced machine-learning method that has extraordinary capability to learn complex relationships from large-scale data. By stacking multiple hidden neural networks, deep learning can ingest raw data without manually designed features. Transfer learning is an important method in deep learning. It improves the learning process a new task through the transfer of knowledge from an already-learned related task. Transfer learning allows models trained using large datasets to be utilized across conditions by fine-tuning on smaller datasets, instead of retraining the whole model. Many retention time prediction methods have been developed. In the process of training the model, the sequences of peptides are encoded to represent peptide information. Deep learning considers the relationship between the characteristics of the peptides and their corresponding retention times without the need for manual input of the physical and chemical properties of the peptides. Compared with traditional methods, deep learning methods have higher accuracy and can be easily used under different chromatography conditions by transfer learning. If there are not enough datasets to train a new model, a trained model from other datasets can be used as a replacement after calibration with small datasets obtained from these chromatography conditions. While the retention times of modified peptides can also be predicted, the predictions are inadequate for complex modifications such as glycosylation, and this is one of the main problems to be solved. The predicted retention times were used to control the quality of peptide identification. With high accuracy, the predicted retention times can be considered as actual retention times. Therefore, the difference between predicted and observed retention times can serve as an effective and unbiased quantitative metric for evaluating the quality of peptide-spectrum matches (PSMs) reported using different peptide identification methods. Combined with fragment ion intensity prediction, retention time prediction is used to generate spectral libraries for data-independent acquisition (DIA)-based mass spectrometry analysis. Generally, DIA methods identify peptides using specific spectrum libraries obtained from data-dependent acquisition (DDA) experiments. As a result, only peptides detected in the DDA experiments can be present in the libraries and detected in DIA. Furthermore, it takes a lot of time and effort to build libraries from DDA experiments, and typically, they cannot be adopted across different laboratories or instrument platforms. In contrast, the pseudo spectral libraries generated by retention times and fragment ion intensity prediction can overcome these shortcomings. The pseudo spectral libraries generate theoretical spectra of all possible peptides without the need for DDA experiments. This paper reviews the research progress of deep learning methods in the prediction of retention time and in related applications in order to provide references for retention time prediction and protein identification. At the same time, the development direction and application trend of retention time prediction methods based on deep learning are discussed.

DU Zhuokun, Shao Wei, Qin Weijie


deep learning, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(LC-MS/MS), proteomics, retention time