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In Resuscitation plus

Objectives : We evaluated the feasibility of optimising coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with a closed-loop, machine-controlled CPR system (MC-CPR) that sends real-time haemodynamic feedback to a set of machine learning and control algorithms which determine compression/decompression characteristics over time.

Background : American Heart Association CPR guidelines (AHA-CPR) and standard mechanical devices employ a "one-size-fits-all" approach to CPR that fails to adjust compressions over time or individualise therapy, thus leading to deterioration of CPR effectiveness as duration exceeds 15-20 ​min.

Methods : CPR was administered for 30 ​min in a validated porcine model of cardiac arrest. Intubated anaesthetised pigs were randomly assigned to receive MC-CPR (6), mechanical CPR conducted according to AHA-CPR (6), or human-controlled CPR (HC-CPR) (10). MC-CPR directly controlled the CPR piston's amplitude of compression and decompression to maximise CPP over time. In HC-CPR a physician controlled the piston amplitudes to maximise CPP without any algorithmic feedback, while AHA-CPR had one compression depth without adaptation.

Results : MC-CPR significantly improved CPP throughout the 30-min resuscitation period compared to both AHA-CPR and HC-CPR. CPP and carotid blood flow (CBF) remained stable or improved with MC-CPR but deteriorated with AHA-CPR. HC-CPR showed initial but transient improvement that dissipated over time.

Conclusion : Machine learning implemented in a closed-loop system successfully controlled CPR for 30 ​min in our preclinical model. MC-CPR significantly improved CPP and CBF compared to AHA-CPR and ameliorated the temporal haemodynamic deterioration that occurs with standard approaches.

Sebastian Pierre S, Kosmopoulos Marinos N, Gandhi Manan, Oshin Alex, Olson Matthew D, Ripeckyj Adrian, Bahmer Logan, Bartos Jason A, Theodorou Evangelos A, Yannopoulos Demetris


CPR, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Haemodynamics, Machine learning, Mechanical CPR, OHCA, Personalized medicine, Porcine, Refractory VF