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In World journal of clinical cases

BACKGROUND : Down syndrome (DS) is one of the most common chromosomal aneuploidy diseases. Prenatal screening and diagnostic tests can aid the early diagnosis, appropriate management of these fetuses, and give parents an informed choice about whether or not to terminate a pregnancy. In recent years, investigations have been conducted to achieve a high detection rate (DR) and reduce the false positive rate (FPR). Hospitals have accumulated large numbers of screened cases. However, artificial intelligence methods are rarely used in the risk assessment of prenatal screening for DS.

AIM : To use a support vector machine algorithm, classification and regression tree algorithm, and AdaBoost algorithm in machine learning for modeling and analysis of prenatal DS screening.

METHODS : The dataset was from the Center for Prenatal Diagnosis at the First Hospital of Jilin University. We designed and developed intelligent algorithms based on the synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE)-Tomek and adaptive synthetic sampling over-sampling techniques to preprocess the dataset of prenatal screening information. The machine learning model was then established. Finally, the feasibility of artificial intelligence algorithms in DS screening evaluation is discussed.

RESULTS : The database contained 31 DS diagnosed cases, accounting for 0.03% of all patients. The dataset showed a large difference between the numbers of DS affected and non-affected cases. A combination of over-sampling and under-sampling techniques can greatly increase the performance of the algorithm at processing non-balanced datasets. As the number of iterations increases, the combination of the classification and regression tree algorithm and the SMOTE-Tomek over-sampling technique can obtain a high DR while keeping the FPR to a minimum.

CONCLUSION : The support vector machine algorithm and the classification and regression tree algorithm achieved good results on the DS screening dataset. When the T21 risk cutoff value was set to 270, machine learning methods had a higher DR and a lower FPR than statistical methods.

Zhang Hong-Guo, Jiang Yu-Ting, Dai Si-Da, Li Ling, Hu Xiao-Nan, Liu Rui-Zhi


Algorithms, Classification and regression tree, Down syndrome, Prenatal screening, Risk cutoff value, Support vector machine