In Frontiers in nutrition
Different geographical origins can lead to great variance in coffee quality, taste, and commercial value. Hence, controlling the authenticity of the origin of coffee beans is of great importance for producers and consumers worldwide. In this study, terahertz (THz) spectroscopy, combined with machine learning methods, was investigated as a fast and non-destructive method to classify the geographic origin of coffee beans, comparing it with the popular machine learning methods, including convolutional neural network (CNN), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and support vector machine (SVM) to obtain the best model. The curse of dimensionality will cause some classification methods which are struggling to train effective models. Thus, principal component analysis (PCA) and genetic algorithm (GA) were applied for LDA and SVM to create a smaller set of features. The first nine principal components (PCs) with an accumulative contribution rate of 99.9% extracted by PCA and 21 variables selected by GA were the inputs of LDA and SVM models. The results demonstrate that the excellent classification (accuracy was 90% in a prediction set) could be achieved using a CNN method. The results also indicate variable selecting as an important step to create an accurate and robust discrimination model. The performances of LDA and SVM algorithms could be improved with spectral features extracted by PCA and GA. The GA-SVM has achieved 75% accuracy in a prediction set, while the SVM and PCA-SVM have achieved 50 and 65% accuracy, respectively. These results demonstrate that THz spectroscopy, together with machine learning methods, is an effective and satisfactory approach for classifying geographical origins of coffee beans, suggesting the techniques to tap the potential application of deep learning in the authenticity of agricultural products while expanding the application of THz spectroscopy.
Yang Si, Li Chenxi, Mei Yang, Liu Wen, Liu Rong, Chen Wenliang, Han Donghai, Xu Kexin
THz spectroscopy, classification, coffee beans, geographical origin, machine learning