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In The Science of the total environment

Remote sensing techniques have been applied to monitor the spatiotemporal variation of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in many inland waters. However, these studies have been limited to monitor the vertical distribution of HABs due to the optical complexity of inland water. Therefore, this study applied a deep neural network model to monitor the vertical distribution of Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), phycocyanin (PC), and turbidity (Turb) using drone-borne hyperspectral imagery, in-situ measurement, and meteoroidal data. The pigment concentrations were measured between depths of 0 m and 5.0 m with 0.05 m intervals. Here, four state-of-the-art data-driven model structures (ResNet-18, ResNet-101, GoogLeNet, and Inception v3) were adopted for estimating the vertical distributions of the harmful algal pigments. Among the four models, the ResNet-18 model showed the best performance, with an R2 value of 0.70. In addition, Gradient-weighted Class Activation Mapping (Grad-CAM) substantially provided informative reflectance band ranges near 490 nm and 620 nm in the hyperspectral image for the vertical estimation of pigments. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the explainable deep learning model with drone-borne hyperspectral images has the potential to estimate Chl-a, PC, and Turb vertical distributions and to show influential features that contribute to describing the vertical profile phenomena.

Hong Seok Min, Baek Sang-Soo, Yun Daeun, Kwon Yong-Hwan, Duan Hongtao, Pyo JongCheol, Cho Kyung Hwa


Cyanobacteria, Drone-borne hyperspectral image, Explainable deep learning model, Vertical profile