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In Calcified tissue international

Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the gold standard for diagnosing osteoporosis; it is generally recommended in men ≥ 70 and women ≥ 65 years old. Therefore, assessment of clinical risk factors for osteoporosis is very important in individuals under the recommended age for DXA. Here, we examine the diagnostic performance of machine learning-based prediction models for osteoporosis in individuals under the recommended age for DXA examination. Data of 2210 men aged 50-69 and 1099 women aged 50-64 obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV-V were analyzed. Extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) was used to find relevant clinical features and applied to three machine learning models: XGBoost, logistic regression, and a multilayer perceptron. For the prediction of osteoporosis, the XGBoost model using the top 20 features extracted from XGBoost showed the most reliable performance with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.73 and 0.79 in men and women, respectively. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of the Shapley additive explanation values based on a risk-score model obtained from XGBoost and conventional osteoporosis risk assessment tools for prediction of osteoporosis using optimal cut-off values for each model. We observed that a cut-off risk score of ≥ 28 in men and ≥ 47 in women was optimal to classify a positive screening for osteoporosis (an AUROC of 0.86 in men and 0.91 in women). The XGBoost-based osteoporosis-prediction model outperformed conventional risk assessment tools. Therefore, machine learning-based prediction models are a more suitable option than conventional risk assessment methods for screening osteoporosis in individuals under the recommended age for DXA examination.

Park Hyun Woo, Jung Hyojung, Back Kyoung Yeon, Choi Hyeon Ju, Ryu Kwang Sun, Cha Hyo Soung, Lee Eun Kyung, Hong A Ram, Hwangbo Yul


Bone mineral density, Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, Machine learning, Osteoporosis