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In NPJ breast cancer

Assessment of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is increasingly recognized as an integral part of the prognostic workflow in triple-negative (TNBC) and HER2-positive breast cancer, as well as many other solid tumors. This recognition has come about thanks to standardized visual reporting guidelines, which helped to reduce inter-reader variability. Now, there are ripe opportunities to employ computational methods that extract spatio-morphologic predictive features, enabling computer-aided diagnostics. We detail the benefits of computational TILs assessment, the readiness of TILs scoring for computational assessment, and outline considerations for overcoming key barriers to clinical translation in this arena. Specifically, we discuss: 1. ensuring computational workflows closely capture visual guidelines and standards; 2. challenges and thoughts standards for assessment of algorithms including training, preanalytical, analytical, and clinical validation; 3. perspectives on how to realize the potential of machine learning models and to overcome the perceptual and practical limits of visual scoring.

Amgad Mohamed, Stovgaard Elisabeth Specht, Balslev Eva, Thagaard Jeppe, Chen Weijie, Dudgeon Sarah, Sharma Ashish, Kerner Jennifer K, Denkert Carsten, Yuan Yinyin, AbdulJabbar Khalid, Wienert Stephan, Savas Peter, Voorwerk Leonie, Beck Andrew H, Madabhushi Anant, Hartman Johan, Sebastian Manu M, Horlings Hugo M, Hudeček Jan, Ciompi Francesco, Moore David A, Singh Rajendra, Roblin Elvire, Balancin Marcelo Luiz, Mathieu Marie-Christine, Lennerz Jochen K, Kirtani Pawan, Chen I-Chun, Braybrooke Jeremy P, Pruneri Giancarlo, Demaria Sandra, Adams Sylvia, Schnitt Stuart J, Lakhani Sunil R, Rojo Federico, Comerma Laura, Badve Sunil S, Khojasteh Mehrnoush, Symmans W Fraser, Sotiriou Christos, Gonzalez-Ericsson Paula, Pogue-Geile Katherine L, Kim Rim S, Rimm David L, Viale Giuseppe, Hewitt Stephen M, Bartlett John M S, Penault-Llorca Frédérique, Goel Shom, Lien Huang-Chun, Loibl Sibylle, Kos Zuzana, Loi Sherene, Hanna Matthew G, Michiels Stefan, Kok Marleen, Nielsen Torsten O, Lazar Alexander J, Bago-Horvath Zsuzsanna, Kooreman Loes F S, van der Laak Jeroen A W M, Saltz Joel, Gallas Brandon D, Kurkure Uday, Barnes Michael, Salgado Roberto, Cooper Lee A D