In Biomimetics (Basel, Switzerland)
Statistical parametric speech synthesis based on Hidden Markov Models has been an important technique for the production of artificial voices, due to its ability to produce results with high intelligibility and sophisticated features such as voice conversion and accent modification with a small footprint, particularly for low-resource languages where deep learning-based techniques remain unexplored. Despite the progress, the quality of the results, mainly based on Hidden Markov Models (HMM) does not reach those of the predominant approaches, based on unit selection of speech segments of deep learning. One of the proposals to improve the quality of HMM-based speech has been incorporating postfiltering stages, which pretend to increase the quality while preserving the advantages of the process. In this paper, we present a new approach to postfiltering synthesized voices with the application of discriminative postfilters, with several long short-term memory (LSTM) deep neural networks. Our motivation stems from modeling specific mapping from synthesized to natural speech on those segments corresponding to voiced or unvoiced sounds, due to the different qualities of those sounds and how HMM-based voices can present distinct degradation on each one. The paper analyses the discriminative postfilters obtained using five voices, evaluated using three objective measures, Mel cepstral distance and subjective tests. The results indicate the advantages of the discriminative postilters in comparison with the HTS voice and the non-discriminative postfilters.
deep learning, lstm, postfiltering, speech synthesis