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In Biochimica et biophysica acta. Reviews on cancer

The field of immuno-oncology has expanded rapidly over the past decade, but key questions remain. How does tumour-immune interaction regulate disease progression? How can we prospectively identify patients who will benefit from immunotherapy? Identifying measurable features of the tumour immune-microenvironment which have prognostic or predictive value will be key to making meaningful gains in these areas. Recent developments in deep learning enable a big-data analysis of pathological samples. Digital approaches allow data to be acquired, integrated and analysed far beyond what is possible with conventional techniques, and to do so efficiently and at scale. This has the potential to reshape what can be achieved in terms of volume, precision and reliability of output, enabling data for large cohorts to be summarised and compared. This review examines applications of Artificial intelligence (AI) to important questions in Immuno-oncology (IO). We discuss general considerations that need to be taken into account before AI can be applied in any clinical setting. We describe AI methods that have been applied to the field of IO to date and present several examples of their use.

Sobhani Faranak, Robinson Ruth, Hamidinekoo Azam, Roxanis Ioannis, Somaiah Navita, Yuan Yinyin


Artificial intelligence (AI), Deep learning (DL), Digital pathology (DP), Immuno-oncology (IO)