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In Nature biomedical engineering

Machine learning promises to assist physicians with predictions of mortality and of other future clinical events by learning complex patterns from historical data, such as longitudinal electronic health records. Here we show that a convolutional neural network trained on raw pixel data in 812,278 echocardiographic videos from 34,362 individuals provides superior predictions of one-year all-cause mortality. The model's predictions outperformed the widely used pooled cohort equations, the Seattle Heart Failure score (measured in an independent dataset of 2,404 patients with heart failure who underwent 3,384 echocardiograms), and a machine learning model involving 58 human-derived variables from echocardiograms and 100 clinical variables derived from electronic health records. We also show that cardiologists assisted by the model substantially improved the sensitivity of their predictions of one-year all-cause mortality by 13% while maintaining prediction specificity. Large unstructured datasets may enable deep learning to improve a wide range of clinical prediction models.

Ulloa Cerna Alvaro E, Jing Linyuan, Good Christopher W, vanMaanen David P, Raghunath Sushravya, Suever Jonathan D, Nevius Christopher D, Wehner Gregory J, Hartzel Dustin N, Leader Joseph B, Alsaid Amro, Patel Aalpen A, Kirchner H Lester, Pfeifer John M, Carry Brendan J, Pattichis Marios S, Haggerty Christopher M, Fornwalt Brandon K