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In Journal of biomedical informatics ; h5-index 55.0

OBJECTIVE : The goal of this work was to capture diseases in patients by comprehending the fine-grained medical conditions and disease progression manifested by transitions in medical conditions. We realize this by introducing our earlier work on a state-of-the-art knowledge presentation, which defines a disease as a causal chain of abnormal states (CCAS). Here, we propose a framework, EHR2CCAS, for constructing a system to map electronic health record (EHR) data to CCAS.

MATERIALS AND METHODS : EHR2CCAS is a framework consisting of modules that access heterogeneous EHR to estimate the presence of abnormal states in a CCAS for a patient in a given time window. EHR2CCAS applies expert-driven (rule-based) and data-driven (machine learning) methods to identify abnormal states from structured and unstructured EHR data. It features data-driven approaches for unlocking clinical texts and imputations based on the EHR temporal properties and the causal CCAS structure. This study presents the CCAS of chronic kidney disease as an example. A mapping system between the EHR from the University of Tokyo Hospital and CCAS of chronic kidney disease was constructed and evaluated against expert annotation.

RESULTS : The system achieved high prediction performance in identifying abnormal states that had strong agreement among annotators. Our handling of narrative varieties in texts and our imputation of the presence of an abnormal state markedly improved the prediction performance. EHR2CCAS presents patient data describing the temporal presence of abnormal states in CCAS, which is useful in individual disease progression management. Further analysis of the differentiation of transition among abnormal states outputted by EHR2CCAS can contribute to detecting disease subtypes.

CONCLUSION : This work represents the first step toward combining disease knowledge and EHR to extract abnormality related to a disease defined as fine-grained abnormal states and transitions among them. This can aid in disease progression management and deep phenotyping.

Ma Xiaojun, Imai Takeshi, Shinohara Emiko, Kasai Satoshi, Kato Kosuke, Kagawa Rina, Ohe Kazuhiko


chronic kidney disease, electronic health record, knowledge base, machine learning, natural language processing