In AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE : Malignant melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer in which brain metastases are common. Our aim was to establish and evaluate a deep learning model for fully automated detection and segmentation of brain metastases in patients with malignant melanoma using clinical routine MR imaging.
MATERIALS AND METHODS : Sixty-nine patients with melanoma with a total of 135 brain metastases at initial diagnosis and available multiparametric MR imaging datasets (T1-/T2-weighted, T1-weighted gadolinium contrast-enhanced, FLAIR) were included. A previously established deep learning model architecture (3D convolutional neural network; DeepMedic) simultaneously operating on the aforementioned MR images was trained on a cohort of 55 patients with 103 metastases using 5-fold cross-validation. The efficacy of the deep learning model was evaluated using an independent test set consisting of 14 patients with 32 metastases. Manual segmentations of metastases in a voxelwise manner (T1-weighted gadolinium contrast-enhanced imaging) performed by 2 radiologists in consensus served as the ground truth.
RESULTS : After training, the deep learning model detected 28 of 32 brain metastases (mean volume, 1.0 [SD, 2.4] cm3) in the test cohort correctly (sensitivity of 88%), while false-positive findings of 0.71 per scan were observed. Compared with the ground truth, automated segmentations achieved a median Dice similarity coefficient of 0.75.
CONCLUSIONS : Deep learning-based automated detection and segmentation of brain metastases in malignant melanoma yields high detection and segmentation accuracy with false-positive findings of <1 per scan.
Pennig L, Shahzad R, Caldeira L, Lennartz S, Thiele F, Goertz L, Zopfs D, Meißner A-K, Fürtjes G, Perkuhn M, Kabbasch C, Grau S, Borggrefe J, Laukamp K R