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In Physics in medicine and biology

We present a robust deep learning-based framework for dose calculations of abdominal tumours in a 1.5 T MRI radiotherapy system. For a set of patient plans, a convolutional neural network is trained on the dose of individual multi-leaf-collimator segments following the DeepDose framework. It can then be used to predict the dose distribution per segment for a set of patient anatomies. The network was trained using data from three anatomical sites of the abdomen: prostate, rectal and oligometastatic tumours. A total of 216 patient fractions were used, previously treated in our clinic with fixed-beam IMRT using the Elekta MR-linac. For the purpose of training, 176 fractions were used with random gantry angles assigned to each segment, while 20 fractions were used for the validation of the network. The ground truth data were calculated with a Monte Carlo dose engine at 1% statistical uncertainty per segment. For a total of 20 independent abdominal test fractions with the clinical angles, the network was able to accurately predict the dose distributions, achieving 99.4% ± 0.6% for the whole plan prediction at the 3%/3 mm gamma test. The average dose difference and standard deviation per segment was 0.3% ± 0.7%. Additional dose prediction on one cervical and one pancreatic case yielded high dose agreement of 99.9% and 99.8% respectively for the 3%/3 mm criterion. Overall, we show that our deep learning-based dose engine calculates highly accurate dose distributions for a variety of abdominal tumour sites treated on the MR-linac, in terms of performance and generality.

Tsekas Georgios, Bol Gijsbert H, Raaymakers Bas W, Kontaxis Charis


AI, IMRT, MR-linac, deep learning, dose engine, secondary dose engine, treatment planning