In NeuroImage. Clinical
Besides passive recording of brain electric or magnetic activity, also non-ionizing electromagnetic or optical radiation can be used for real-time brain imaging. Here, changes in the radiation's absorption or scattering allow for continuous in vivo assessment of regional neurometabolic and neurovascular activity. Besides magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), over the last years, also functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was successfully established in real-time metabolic brain imaging. In contrast to MRI, fNIRS is portable and can be applied at bedside or in everyday life environments, e.g., to restore communication and movement. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of the history and state-of-the-art of real-time optical brain imaging with a special emphasis on its clinical use towards neurofeedback and brain-computer interface (BCI) applications. Besides pointing to the most critical challenges in clinical use, also novel approaches that combine real-time optical neuroimaging with other recording modalities (e.g. electro- or magnetoencephalography) are described, and their use in the context of neuroergonomics, neuroenhancement or neuroadaptive systems discussed.
Soekadar Surjo R, Kohl Simon H, Mihara Masahito, von Lühmann Alexander
Brain-computer interface, Cerebral blood flow, Clinical translation, Functional near-infrared spectroscopy, Neurofeedback, Neuropsychiatric disorders, Neurovascular coupling, Optical brain imaging