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In Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

Introduction: Poor adherence to pharmacological treatment is prevalent in schizophrenia, affecting more than half of patients at some time, with increased risks of clinical worsening, adverse outcomes, suicide, and increased resource utilization including hospitalization, with higher costs. Areas Covered: This review considers factors associated with treatment-nonadherence among schizophrenia patients, with a systematic evaluation of interventions aimed at improving adherence with an emphasis on evidence arising from their testing. Expert opinion: Several interventions have addressed factors empirically associated with treatment-nonadherence, including various drug-, patient - and clinical services-associated factors. They include long-acting injected (LAI) drug formulations, behavioral interventions, and technology-supported methods. Use of LAI antipsychotics and behavioral techniques aimed at incorporating medicine-taking into daily routines with electronic monitoring have been assessed relatively extensively. Mobile, digital applications including medication monitoring systems and artificial intelligence-based interactions are emerging but have been tested in few trials of limited quality with inconclusive results. Randomized, controlled, blinded trials based on clinically representative samples are needed to evaluate not only adherence, but also to test for clinically meaningful and sustained clinical benefits in schizophrenia patients, who are especially difficult to treat.

Curto Martina, Fazio Francesco, Ulivieri Martina, Navari Serena, Lionetto Luana, Baldessarini Ross J


Adherence, antipsychotics, enhancement, schizophrenia, treatment