In Artificial cells, nanomedicine, and biotechnology
BACKGROUND : Machine learning (ML) algorithms have been widely used in the classification of white blood cells (WBCs). However, the performance of ML algorithms still needs to be addressed for being short of gold standard data sets, and even the implementation of the proposed algorithms.
METHODS : In this study, the method of two-module weighted optimized deformable convolutional neural networks (TWO-DCNN) was proposed for WBC classification. Our algorithm is characterized as two-module transfer learning and deformable convolutional (DC) layers for the betterment of robustness. To validate the performance, our method was compared with classical MLs of VGG16, VGG19, Inception-V3, ResNet-50, support vector machine (SVM), multilayer perceptron (MLP), decision tree (DT) and random forest (RF) on our undisclosed WBC data set and public BCCD data set.
RESULTS : TWO-DCNN achieved the best performance with the precisions (PREs) of 95.7%, 94.5% and 91.6%, recalls (RECs) of 95.7%, 94.5% and 91.6%, F1-scores (F1s) of 95.7%, 94.5% and 91.6%, area under curves (AUCs) of 0.98, 0.97 and 0.95 for low-resolution and noisy undisclosed data sets, BCCD data set, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS : With accurate feature extraction and optimized network weights, the proposed TWO-DCNN showed the best performance in WBC classification for low-resolution and noisy data sets. It could be used as an alternative method for clinical applications.
Yao Xufeng, Sun Kai, Bu Xixi, Zhao Congyi, Jin Yu
White blood cell (WBC), classification, deep learning, machine learning, transfer learning