PURPOSE : Functional pituitary adenomas (FPAs) cause severe neuro-endocrinopathies including Cushing's disease (CD) and acromegaly. While many are effectively cured following FPA resection, some encounter disease recurrence/progression or hormonal non-remission requiring adjuvant treatment. Identification of risk factors for suboptimal postoperative outcomes may guide initiation of adjuvant multimodal therapies.
METHODS : Patients undergoing endonasal transsphenoidal resection for CD, acromegaly, and mammosomatotroph adenomas between 1992 and 2019 were identified. Good outcomes were defined as hormonal remission without imaging/biochemical evidence of disease recurrence/progression, while suboptimal outcomes were defined as hormonal non-remission or MRI evidence of recurrence/progression despite adjuvant treatment. Multivariate regression modeling and multilayered neural networks (NN) were implemented. The training sets randomly sampled 60% of all FPA patients, and validation/testing sets were 20% samples each.
RESULTS : 348 patients with mean age of 41.7 years were identified. Eighty-one patients (23.3%) reported suboptimal outcomes. Variables predictive of suboptimal outcomes included: Requirement for additional surgery in patients who previously had surgery and continue to have functionally active tumor (p = 0.0069; OR = 1.51, 95%CI 1.12-2.04), Preoperative visual deficit not improved after surgery (p = 0.0033; OR = 1.12, 95%CI 1.04-1.20), Transient diabetes insipidus (p = 0.013; OR = 1.27, 95%CI 1.05-1.52), Higher MIB-1/Ki-67 labeling index (p = 0.038; OR = 1.08, 95%CI 1.01-1.15), and preoperative low cortisol axis (p = 0.040; OR = 2.72, 95%CI 1.06-7.01). The NN had overall accuracy of 87.1%, sensitivity of 89.5%, specificity of 76.9%, positive predictive value of 94.4%, and negative predictive value of 62.5%. NNs for all FPAs were more robust than for CD or acromegaly/mammosomatotroph alone.
CONCLUSION : We demonstrate capability of predicting suboptimal postoperative outcomes with high accuracy. NNs may aid in stratifying patients for risk of suboptimal outcomes, thereby guiding implementation of adjuvant treatment in high-risk patients.
Shahrestani Shane, Cardinal Tyler, Micko Alexander, Strickland Ben A, Pangal Dhiraj J, Kugener Guillaume, Weiss Martin H, Carmichael John, Zada Gabriel
Adenoma, Functional, Machine learning, Pituitary, Progression, Recurrence