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In Neuro-oncology advances

Neuro-oncology largely consists of malignancies of the brain and central nervous system including both primary as well as metastatic tumors. Currently, a significant clinical challenge in neuro-oncology is to tailor therapies for patients based on a priori knowledge of their survival outcome or treatment response to conventional or experimental therapies. Radiomics or the quantitative extraction of subvisual data from conventional radiographic imaging has recently emerged as a powerful data-driven approach to offer insights into clinically relevant questions related to diagnosis, prediction, prognosis, as well as assessing treatment response. Furthermore, radiogenomic approaches provide a mechanism to establish statistical correlations of radiomic features with point mutations and next-generation sequencing data to further leverage the potential of routine MRI scans to serve as "virtual biopsy" maps. In this review, we provide an introduction to radiomic and radiogenomic approaches in neuro-oncology, including a brief description of the workflow involving preprocessing, tumor segmentation, and extraction of "hand-crafted" features from the segmented region of interest, as well as identifying radiogenomic associations that could ultimately lead to the development of reliable prognostic and predictive models in neuro-oncology applications. Lastly, we discuss the promise of radiomics and radiogenomic approaches in personalizing treatment decisions in neuro-oncology, as well as the challenges with clinical adoption, which will rely heavily on their demonstrated resilience to nonstandardization in imaging protocols across sites and scanners, as well as in their ability to demonstrate reproducibility across large multi-institutional cohorts.

Beig Niha, Bera Kaustav, Tiwari Pallavi

2020-Dec

glioblastoma, machine learning, radiogenomics, radiomics