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In IEEE journal of biomedical and health informatics

Accurate classification of Cushing's Syndrome (CS) plays a critical role in providing the early and correct diagnosis of CS that may facilitate treatment and improve patient outcomes. Diagnosis of CS is a complex process, which requires careful and concurrent interpretation of signs and symptoms, multiple biochemical test results, and findings of medical imaging by physicians with a high degree of specialty and knowledge to make correct judgments. In this article, we explore the state of the art machine learning algorithms to demonstrate their potential as a clinical decision support system to analyze and classify CS to facilitate the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of CS. Prominent algorithms are compared using nested cross-validation and various class comparison strategies including multiclass, one vs. all, and one vs. one binary classification. Our findings show that Random Forest (RF) algorithm is most suitable for the classification of CS. We demonstrate that the proposed approach can classify CS with an average accuracy of 92% and an average F1 score of 91.5%, depending on the class comparison strategy and selected features. RF-based one vs. all binary classification model achieves sensitivity of 97.6%, precision of 91.1%, and specificity of 87.1% to discriminate CS from non-CS on the test dataset. RF-based multiclass classification model achieves average per class sensitivity of 91.8%, average per class specificity of 97.1%, and average per class precision of 92.1% to classify different subtypes of CS on the test dataset. Clinical performance evaluation suggests that the developed models can help improve physicians' judgment in diagnosing CS.

Isci Senol, Yaman Kalender Derya Sema, Bayraktar Firat, Yaman Alper