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In IEEE transactions on medical imaging ; h5-index 74.0

To better understand early brain development in health and disorder, it is critical to accurately segment infant brain magnetic resonance (MR) images into white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Deep learning-based methods have achieved state-of-the-art performance; however, one of the major limitations is that the learning-based methods may suffer from the multi-site issue, that is, the models trained on a dataset from one site may not be applicable to the datasets acquired from other sites with different imaging protocols/scanners. To promote methodological development in the community, the iSeg-2019 challenge ( provides a set of 6-month infant subjects from multiple sites with different protocols/scanners for the participating methods. Training/validation subjects are from UNC (MAP) and testing subjects are from UNC/UMN (BCP), Stanford University, and Emory University. By the time of writing, there are 30 automatic segmentation methods participated in the iSeg-2019. In this article, 8 top-ranked methods were reviewed by detailing their pipelines/implementations, presenting experimental results, and evaluating performance across different sites in terms of whole brain, regions of interest, and gyral landmark curves. We further pointed out their limitations and possible directions for addressing the multi-site issue. We find that multi-site consistency is still an open issue. We hope that the multi-site dataset in the iSeg-2019 and this review article will attract more researchers to address the challenging and critical multi-site issue in practice.

Sun Yue, Gao Kun, Wu Zhengwang, Li Guannan, Zong Xiaopeng, Lei Zhihao, Wei Ying, Ma Jun, Yang Xiaoping, Feng Xue, Zhao Li, Le Phan Trung, Shin Jitae, Zhong Tao, Zhang Yu, Yu Lequan, Li Caizi, Basnet Ramesh, Omair Ahmad M, Swamy M N S, Ma Wenao, Dou Qi, Bui Toan Duc, Noguera Camilo Bermudez, Landman Bennett, Gotlib Ian H, Humphreys Kathryn L, Shultz Sarah, Li Longchuan, Niu Sijie, Lin Weili, Jewells Valerie, Shen Dinggang, Li Gang, Wang Li