In Frontiers in robotics and AI
Human-centered artificial intelligence is increasingly deployed in professional workplaces in Industry 4.0 to address various challenges related to the collaboration between the operators and the machines, the augmentation of their capabilities, or the improvement of the quality of their work and life in general. Intelligent systems and autonomous machines need to continuously recognize and follow the professional actions and gestures of the operators in order to collaborate with them and anticipate their trajectories for avoiding potential collisions and accidents. Nevertheless, the recognition of patterns of professional gestures is a very challenging task for both research and the industry. There are various types of human movements that the intelligent systems need to perceive, for example, gestural commands to machines and professional actions with or without the use of tools. Moreover, the interclass and intraclass spatiotemporal variances together with the very limited access to annotated human motion data constitute a major research challenge. In this paper, we introduce the Gesture Operational Model, which describes how gestures are performed based on assumptions that focus on the dynamic association of body entities, their synergies, and their serial and non-serial mediations, as well as their transitioning over time from one state to another. Then, the assumptions of the Gesture Operational Model are translated into a simultaneous equation system for each body entity through State-Space modeling. The coefficients of the equation are computed using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation method. The simulation of the model generates a confidence-bounding box for every entity that describes the tolerance of its spatial variance over time. The contribution of our approach is demonstrated for both recognizing gestures and forecasting human motion trajectories. In recognition, it is combined with continuous Hidden Markov Models to boost the recognition accuracy when the likelihoods are not confident. In forecasting, a motion trajectory can be estimated by taking as minimum input two observations only. The performance of the algorithm has been evaluated using four industrial datasets that contain gestures and actions from a TV assembly line, the glassblowing industry, the gestural commands to Automated Guided Vehicles as well as the Human-Robot Collaboration in the automotive assembly lines. The hybrid approach State-Space and HMMs outperforms standard continuous HMMs and a 3DCNN-based end-to-end deep architecture.
Manitsaris Sotiris, Senteri Gavriela, Makrygiannis Dimitrios, Glushkova Alina
differential equations, forecasting, gesture recognition, hidden Markov models, motion trajectory, movement modeling, state-space representation