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In Der Pathologe

In addition to pneumology and pathology, radiology is an essential discipline in the interdisciplinary diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). The gold standard for diagnosis of ILD is computed tomography. Diagnostic findings are based on specific radiological signs such as interlobular septal thickening and nodular changes. From these signs and their distribution within the lung, radiological patterns can be derived, e.g., usual interstitial pneumonia, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, or organizing pneumonia. Various differential diagnoses result from the radiological pattern, which can then be further limited in an interdisciplinary manner with the clinic and pathology and, if necessary, trigger further diagnostics.The visual assessment of interstitial lung changes requires experience and training and is nevertheless error-prone with high inter- and intraobserver variabilities. Recently, therefore, computer-aided analysis of ILDs has been increasingly promoted. These computer programs analyze the density distribution of the lung parenchyma using parameters such as mean lung density, skewness, and kurtosis thus enabling the quantification and assessment of the course of disease. Furthermore, texture analysis and artificial intelligence are used to characterize parenchymal changes and differentiate between regions of ground glass, reticulation, and honeycombing. Modern dual-energy CT methods allow a combined, regional recording of both the morphology and the function and provide information about regional ventilation and perfusion.

Dettmer Sabine, Scharm Sarah, Shin Hoen-Oh

2021-Jan-26

Artificial intelligence, Computed tomography, Computer-aided analysis, Pulmonary fibrosis, Radiology