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In Journal of thoracic imaging

Recent advances in positron emission tomography (PET) technology and reconstruction techniques have now made quantitative assessment using cardiac PET readily available in most cardiac PET imaging centers. Multiple PET myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) radiopharmaceuticals are available for quantitative examination of myocardial ischemia, with each having distinct convenience and accuracy profile. Important properties of these radiopharmaceuticals (15O-water, 13N-ammonia, 82Rb, 11C-acetate, and 18F-flurpiridaz) including radionuclide half-life, mean positron range in tissue, and the relationship between kinetic parameters and myocardial blood flow (MBF) are presented. Absolute quantification of MBF requires PET MPI to be performed with protocols that allow the generation of dynamic multiframes of reconstructed data. Using a tissue compartment model, the rate constant that governs the rate of PET MPI radiopharmaceutical extraction from the blood plasma to myocardial tissue is calculated. Then, this rate constant (K1) is converted to MBF using an established extraction formula for each radiopharmaceutical. As most of the modern PET scanners acquire the data only in list mode, techniques of processing the list-mode data into dynamic multiframes are also reviewed. Finally, the impact of modern PET technologies such as PET/CT, PET/MR, total-body PET, machine learning/deep learning on comprehensive and quantitative assessment of myocardial ischemia is briefly described in this review.

Sohn Jae Ho, Behr Spencer C, Hernandez Pampaloni Miguel, Seo Youngho