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ArXiv Preprint

Automatic segmentation of brain abnormalities is challenging, as they vary considerably from one pathology to another. Current methods are supervised and require numerous annotated images for each pathology, a strenuous task. To tackle anatomical variability, Unsupervised Anomaly Detection (UAD) methods are proposed, detecting anomalies as outliers of a healthy model learned using a Variational Autoencoder (VAE). Previous work on UAD adopted a 2D approach, meaning that MRIs are processed as a collection of independent slices. Yet, it does not fully exploit the spatial information contained in MRI. Here, we propose to perform UAD in a 3D fashion and compare 2D and 3D VAEs. As a side contribution, we present a new loss function guarantying a robust training. Learning is performed using a multicentric dataset of healthy brain MRIs, and segmentation performances are estimated on White-Matter Hyperintensities and tumors lesions. Experiments demonstrate the interest of 3D methods which outperform their 2D counterparts.

Benjamin Lambert, Maxime Louis, Senan Doyle, Florence Forbes, Michel Dojat, Alan Tucholka