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In Scientific reports ; h5-index 158.0

Traditional computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) processes include feature extraction, selection, and classification. Effective feature extraction in CAD is important in improving the classification's performance. We introduce a machine-learning method and have designed an analysis procedure of benign and malignant breast tumour classification in ultrasound (US) images without a need for a priori tumour region-selection processing, thereby decreasing clinical diagnosis efforts while maintaining high classification performance. Our dataset constituted 677 US images (benign: 312, malignant: 365). Regarding two-dimensional US images, the oriented gradient descriptors' histogram pyramid was extracted and utilised to obtain feature vectors. The correlation-based feature selection method was used to evaluate and select significant feature sets for further classification. Sequential minimal optimisation-combining local weight learning-was utilised for classification and performance enhancement. The image dataset's classification performance showed an 81.64% sensitivity and 87.76% specificity for malignant images (area under the curve = 0.847). The positive and negative predictive values were 84.1 and 85.8%, respectively. Here, a new workflow, utilising machine learning to recognise malignant US images was proposed. Comparison of physician diagnoses and the automatic classifications made using machine learning yielded similar outcomes. This indicates the potential applicability of machine learning in clinical diagnoses.

Shia Wei-Chung, Lin Li-Sheng, Chen Dar-Ren