In International journal of neural systems
The diagnosis of epilepsy often relies on a reading of routine scalp electroencephalograms (EEGs). Since seizures are highly unlikely to be detected in a routine scalp EEG, the primary diagnosis depends heavily on the visual evaluation of Interictal Epileptiform Discharges (IEDs). This process is tedious, expert-centered, and delays the treatment plan. Consequently, the development of an automated, fast, and reliable epileptic EEG diagnostic system is essential. In this study, we propose a system to classify EEG as epileptic or normal based on multiple modalities extracted from the interictal EEG. The ensemble system consists of three components: a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)-based IED detector, a Template Matching (TM)-based IED detector, and a spectral feature-based classifier. We evaluate the system on datasets from six centers from the USA, Singapore, and India. The system yields a mean Leave-One-Institution-Out (LOIO) cross-validation (CV) area under curve (AUC) of 0.826 (balanced accuracy (BAC) of 76.1%) and Leave-One-Subject-Out (LOSO) CV AUC of 0.812 (BAC of 74.8%). The LOIO results are found to be similar to the interrater agreement (IRA) reported in the literature for epileptic EEG classification. Moreover, as the proposed system can process routine EEGs in a few seconds, it may aid the clinicians in diagnosing epilepsy efficiently.
Thomas John, Thangavel Prasanth, Peh Wei Yan, Jing Jin, Yuvaraj Rajamanickam, Cash Sydney S, Chaudhari Rima, Karia Sagar, Rathakrishnan Rahul, Saini Vinay, Shah Nilesh, Srivastava Rohit, Tan Yee-Leng, Westover Brandon, Dauwels Justin
EEG classification, Epilepsy, convolutional neural networks, deep learning, interictal epileptiform discharges, multi-center study, spike detection