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In Cancers

PURPOSE : Chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) is the standard treatment for non-metastatic anal squamous cell carcinomas (ASCC). Despite excellent results for T1-2 stages, relapses still occur in around 35% of locally advanced tumors. Recent strategies focus on treatment intensification, but could benefit from a better patient selection. Our goal was to assess the prognostic value of pre-therapeutic MRI radiomics on 2-year disease control (DC).

METHODS : We retrospectively selected patients with non-metastatic ASCC treated at the CHU Bordeaux and in the French FFCD0904 multicentric trial. Radiomic features were extracted from T2-weighted pre-therapeutic MRI delineated sequences. After random division between training and testing sets on a 2:1 ratio, univariate and multivariate analysis were performed on the training cohort to select optimal features. The correlation with 2-year DC was assessed using logistic regression models, with AUC and accuracy as performance gauges, and the prediction of disease-free survival using Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis.

RESULTS : A total of 82 patients were randomized in the training (n = 54) and testing sets (n = 28). At 2 years, 24 patients (29%) presented relapse. In the training set, two clinical (tumor size and CRT length) and two radiomic features (FirstOrder_Entropy and GLCM_JointEnergy) were associated with disease control in univariate analysis and included in the model. The clinical model was outperformed by the mixed (clinical and radiomic) model in both the training (AUC 0.758 versus 0.825, accuracy of 75.9% versus 87%) and testing (AUC 0.714 versus 0.898, accuracy of 78.6% versus 85.7%) sets, which led to distinctive high and low risk of disease relapse groups (HR 8.60, p = 0.005).

CONCLUSION : A mixed model with two clinical and two radiomic features was predictive of 2-year disease control after CRT and could contribute to identify high risk patients amenable to treatment intensification with view of personalized medicine.

Giraud Nicolas, Saut Olivier, Aparicio Thomas, Ronchin Philippe, Bazire Louis-Arnaud, Barbier Emilie, Lemanski Claire, Mirabel Xavier, Etienne Pierre-Luc, Lièvre Astrid, Cacheux Wulfran, Darut-Jouve Ariane, De la Fouchardière Christelle, Hocquelet Arnaud, Trillaud Hervé, Charleux Thomas, Breysacher Gilles, Argo-Leignel Delphine, Tessier Alexandre, Magné Nicolas, Ben Abdelghani Meher, Lepage Côme, Vendrely Véronique


anal cancer, machine learning, magnetic resonance imaging, precision medicine, prediction medicine, radiomics