In Cognitive computation
The outbreak of the novel corona virus disease (COVID-19) in December 2019 has led to global crisis around the world. The disease was declared pandemic by World Health Organization (WHO) on 11th of March 2020. Currently, the outbreak has affected more than 200 countries with more than 37 million confirmed cases and more than 1 million death tolls as of 10 October 2020. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the standard method for detection of COVID-19 disease, but it has many challenges such as false positives, low sensitivity, expensive, and requires experts to conduct the test. As the number of cases continue to grow, there is a high need for developing a rapid screening method that is accurate, fast, and cheap. Chest X-ray (CXR) scan images can be considered as an alternative or a confirmatory approach as they are fast to obtain and easily accessible. Though the literature reports a number of approaches to classify CXR images and detect the COVID-19 infections, the majority of these approaches can only recognize two classes (e.g., COVID-19 vs. normal). However, there is a need for well-developed models that can classify a wider range of CXR images belonging to the COVID-19 class itself such as the bacterial pneumonia, the non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia, and the normal CXR scans. The current work proposes the use of a deep learning approach based on pretrained AlexNet model for the classification of COVID-19, non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia, bacterial pneumonia, and normal CXR scans obtained from different public databases. The model was trained to perform two-way classification (i.e., COVID-19 vs. normal, bacterial pneumonia vs. normal, non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia vs. normal, and COVID-19 vs. bacterial pneumonia), three-way classification (i.e., COVID-19 vs. bacterial pneumonia vs. normal), and four-way classification (i.e., COVID-19 vs. bacterial pneumonia vs. non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia vs. normal). For non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia and normal (healthy) CXR images, the proposed model achieved 94.43% accuracy, 98.19% sensitivity, and 95.78% specificity. For bacterial pneumonia and normal CXR images, the model achieved 91.43% accuracy, 91.94% sensitivity, and 100% specificity. For COVID-19 pneumonia and normal CXR images, the model achieved 99.16% accuracy, 97.44% sensitivity, and 100% specificity. For classification CXR images of COVID-19 pneumonia and non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia, the model achieved 99.62% accuracy, 90.63% sensitivity, and 99.89% specificity. For the three-way classification, the model achieved 94.00% accuracy, 91.30% sensitivity, and 84.78%. Finally, for the four-way classification, the model achieved an accuracy of 93.42%, sensitivity of 89.18%, and specificity of 98.92%.
Ibrahim Abdullahi Umar, Ozsoz Mehmet, Serte Sertan, Al-Turjman Fadi, Yakoi Polycarp Shizawaliyi
AlexNet, Bacterial pneumonia, COVID-19, Chest X-rays images (CXR), Non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia