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In Bio-design and manufacturing

Tissue engineering is an emerging means for resolving the problems of tissue repair and organ replacement in regenerative medicine. Insufficient supply of nutrients and oxygen to cells in large-scale tissues has led to the demand to prepare blood vessels. Scaffold-based tissue engineering approaches are effective methods to form new blood vessel tissues. The demand for blood vessels prompts systematic research on fabrication strategies of vascular scaffolds for tissue engineering. Recent advances in 3D printing have facilitated fabrication of vascular scaffolds, contributing to broad prospects for tissue vascularization. This review presents state of the art on modeling methods, print materials and preparation processes for fabrication of vascular scaffolds, and discusses the advantages and application fields of each method. Specially, significance and importance of scaffold-based tissue engineering for vascular regeneration are emphasized. Print materials and preparation processes are discussed in detail. And a focus is placed on preparation processes based on 3D printing technologies and traditional manufacturing technologies including casting, electrospinning, and Lego-like construction. And related studies are exemplified. Transformation of vascular scaffolds to clinical application is discussed. Also, four trends of 3D printing of tissue engineering vascular scaffolds are presented, including machine learning, near-infrared photopolymerization, 4D printing, and combination of self-assembly and 3D printing-based methods.

Wang Pengju, Sun Yazhou, Shi Xiaoquan, Shen Huixing, Ning Haohao, Liu Haitao


3D printing, Modeling methods, Print materials, Tissue engineering, Vascular scaffolds