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In Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland)

Prediction of functional outcome in ischemic stroke patients is useful for clinical decisions. Previous studies mostly elaborate on the prediction of favorable outcomes. Miserable outcomes, which are usually defined as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 5-6, should be considered as well before further invasive intervention. By using a machine learning algorithm, we aimed to develop a multiclass classification model for outcome prediction in acute ischemic stroke patients requiring reperfusion therapy. This was a retrospective study performed at a stroke medical center in Taiwan. Patients with acute ischemic stroke who visited between January 2016 and December 2019 and who were candidates for reperfusion therapy were included. Clinical outcomes were classified as favorable outcome, intermediate outcome, and miserable outcome. We developed four different multiclass machine learning models (Logistic Regression, Supportive Vector Machine, Random Forest, and Extreme Gradient Boosting) to predict clinical outcomes and compared their performance to the DRAGON score. A sample of 590 patients was included in this study. Of them, 180 (30.5%) had favorable outcomes and 152 (25.8%) had miserable outcomes. All selected machine learning models outperformed the DRAGON score on accuracy of outcome prediction (Logistic Regression: 0.70, Supportive Vector Machine: 0.67, Random Forest: 0.69, and Extreme Gradient Boosting: 0.67, vs. DRAGON: 0.51, p < 0.001). Among all selected models, Logistic Regression also had a better performance than the DRAGON score on positive predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity. Compared with the DRAGON score, the multiclass machine learning approach showed better performance on the prediction of the 3-month functional outcome of acute ischemic stroke patients requiring reperfusion therapy.

Chiu I-Min, Zeng Wun-Huei, Cheng Chi-Yung, Chen Shih-Hsuan, Lin Chun-Hung Richard


acute ischemic stroke, machine learning, multiclass classification, outcome prediction, reperfusion therapy