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In Frontiers in oncology

Recent advancement in artificial intelligence (AI) facilitate the development of AI-powered medical imaging including ultrasonography (US). However, overlooking or misdiagnosis of malignant lesions may result in serious consequences; the introduction of AI to the imaging modalities may be an ideal solution to prevent human error. For the development of AI for medical imaging, it is necessary to understand the characteristics of modalities on the context of task setting, required data sets, suitable AI algorism, and expected performance with clinical impact. Regarding the AI-aided US diagnosis, several attempts have been made to construct an image database and develop an AI-aided diagnosis system in the field of oncology. Regarding the diagnosis of liver tumors using US images, 4- or 5-class classifications, including the discrimination of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), metastatic tumors, hemangiomas, liver cysts, and focal nodular hyperplasia, have been reported using AI. Combination of radiomic approach with AI is also becoming a powerful tool for predicting the outcome in patients with HCC after treatment, indicating the potential of AI for applying personalized medical care. However, US images show high heterogeneity because of differences in conditions during the examination, and a variety of imaging parameters may affect the quality of images; such conditions may hamper the development of US-based AI. In this review, we summarized the development of AI in medical images with challenges to task setting, data curation, and focus on the application of AI for the managements of liver tumor, especially for US diagnosis.

Nishida Naoshi, Kudo Masatoshi


artificial intelligence, diagnosis, imaging, liver cancer, neural network, ultrasound