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In Physical and engineering sciences in medicine

Sleep staging is an important step in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and this step is performed by a physician who visually scores the electroencephalography, electrooculography and electromyography signals taken by the polysomnography (PSG) device. The PSG records must be taken by a technician in a hospital environment, this may suggest a drawback. This study aims to develop a new method based on hybrid machine learning with single-channel ECG for sleep-wake detection, which is an alternative to the sleep staging procedure used in hospitals today. For this purpose, the heart rate variability signal was derived using electrocardiography (ECG) signals of 10 OSA patients. Then, QRS components in different frequency bands were obtained from the ECG signal by digital filtering. In this way, nine more signals were obtained in total. 25 features from each of the 9 signals, a total of 225 features have been extracted. Fisher feature selection algorithm and principal component analysis were used to reduce the number of features. Finally, features were classified with decision tree, support vector machines, k-nearest neighborhood algorithm and ensemble classifiers. In addition, the proposed model has been checked with the leave one out method. At the end of the study, it was shown that sleep-wake detection can be performed with 81.35% accuracy with only three features and 87.12% accuracy with 10 features. The sensitivity and specificity values for the 3 features were 0.85 and 0.77, and for 10 features the sensitivity and specificity values were 0.90 and 0.85 respectively. These results suggested that the proposed model could be used to detect sleep-wake stages during the OSA diagnostic process.

Bozkurt Ferda, Uçar Muhammed Kürşad, Bilgin Cahit, Zengin Ahmet


Biomedical signal processing, Electrocardiography, Ensemble classifier, Machine learning, Sleep–wake stage detection