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In Ultrasound quarterly

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an artificial intelligence (AI) support system on breast ultrasound diagnostic accuracy.In this Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant, institutional review board-approved retrospective study, 200 lesions (155 benign, 45 malignant) were randomly selected from consecutive ultrasound-guided biopsies (June 2017-January 2019). Two readers, blinded to clinical history and pathology, evaluated lesions with and without an Food and Drug Administration-approved AI software. Lesion features, Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) rating (1-5), reader confidence level (1-5), and AI BI-RADS equivalent (1-5) were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed for diagnostic accuracy, negative predictive value, positive predictive value (PPV), sensitivity, and specificity of reader versus AI BI-RADS. Generalized estimating equation analysis was used for reader versus AI accuracy regarding lesion features and AI impact on low-confidence score lesions. Artificial intelligence effect on false-positive biopsy rate was determined. Statistical tests were conducted at a 2-sided 5% significance level.There was no significant difference in accuracy (73 vs 69.8%), negative predictive value (100% vs 98.5%), PPV (45.5 vs 42.4%), sensitivity (100% vs 96.7%), and specificity (65.2 vs 61.9; P = 0.118-0.409) for AI versus pooled reader assessment. Artificial intelligence was more accurate than readers for irregular shape (74.1% vs 57.4%, P = 0.002) and less accurate for round shape (26.5% vs 50.0%, P = 0.049). Artificial intelligence improved diagnostic accuracy for reader-rated low-confidence lesions with increased PPV (24.7% AI vs 19.3%, P = 0.004) and specificity (57.8% vs 44.6%, P = 0.008).Artificial intelligence decision support aid may help improve sonographic diagnostic accuracy, particularly in cases with low reader confidence, thereby decreasing false-positives.

Heller Samantha L, Wegener Melanie, Babb James S, Gao Yiming