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In PeerJ

Noncontrast Computed Tomography (NCCT) of the brain has been the first-line diagnosis for emergency evaluation of acute stroke, so a rapid and automated detection, localization, and/or segmentation of ischemic lesions is of great importance. We provide the state-of-the-art review of methods for automated detection, localization, and/or segmentation of ischemic lesions on NCCT in human brain scans along with their comparison, evaluation, and classification. Twenty-two methods are (1) reviewed and evaluated; (2) grouped into image processing and analysis-based methods (11 methods), brain atlas-based methods (two methods), intensity template-based methods (1 method), Stroke Imaging Marker-based methods (two methods), and Artificial Intelligence-based methods (six methods); and (3) properties of these groups of methods are characterized. A new method classification scheme is proposed as a 2 × 2 matrix with local versus global processing and analysis, and density versus spatial sampling. Future studies are necessary to develop more efficient methods directed toward deep learning methods as well as combining the global methods with a high sampling both in space and density for the merged radiologic and neurologic data.

Nowinski Wieslaw L, Walecki Jerzy, Półtorak-Szymczak Gabriela, Sklinda Katarzyna, Mruk Bartosz


** Artificial intelligence, Brain atlas, Human brain, Image processing, Localization, Noncontrast CT, Review, Segmentation, Detection, Image analysis, Ischemic stroke**