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In Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996)

Dystonia is an abnormal involuntary movement or posture owing to sustained or intermittent muscle contraction. Standard treatment for dystonia includes medications, such as levodopa, anticholinergic and antiepileptic drugs, botulinum toxin, and baclofen pump, and surgeries, such as lesioning surgery and deep-brain stimulation. New treatment modalities aimed toward improving dystonia care in the future are under investigation. There are two main axes to improve dystonia care; one is non-invasive neuromodulation, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial electrical stimulation, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. The other is a quantitative evaluation of dystonia using a wearable device and motion-capturing system, which can be empowered by artificial intelligence. In this article, the current status of these axes will be reviewed.

Oyama Genko, Hattori Nobutaka


AI, Quantitative analysis, TBS, TENS, Wearable device, rTMS, tDCDS