In Neural networks : the official journal of the International Neural Network Society
In this study, we propose a deep-learning network model called the deep multi-kernel auto-encoder clustering network (DMACN) for clustering functional connectivity data for brain diseases. This model is an end-to-end clustering algorithm that can learn potentially advanced features and cluster disease categories. Unlike other auto-encoders, DMACN has an added self-expression layer and standard back-propagation is used to learn the features that are beneficial for clustering brain functional connectivity data. In the self-expression layer, the kernel matrix is constructed to extract effective features and a new loss function is proposed to constrain the clustering portion, which enables the training of a deep neural learning network that tends to cluster. To test the performance of the proposed algorithm, we applied the end-to-end deep unsupervised clustering algorithm to brain connectivity data. We then conducted experiments based on four public brain functional connectivity data sets and our own functional connectivity data set. The DMACN algorithm yielded good results in various evaluations compared with the existing clustering algorithm for brain functional connectivity data, the deep auto-encoder clustering algorithm, and several other relevant clustering algorithms. The deep-learning-based clustering algorithm has great potential for use in the unsupervised recognition of brain diseases.
Lu Hu, Liu Saixiong, Wei Hui, Chen Chao, Geng Xia
Auto-encoder, Brain functional connectivity, Deep neural network, Disease diagnosis, Multi-kernel