In Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987)
Water quality improvement is one of the top priorities in the global agenda endorsed by United Nation. In this review manuscript, a holistic view of water quality degradation such as concerned pollutants, source of pollution, and its consequences in major river basins around the globe (at least 1 from each continent and a total of 16 basins) is presented. Additionally, nine contemporary techniques such as field scale evaluation, watershed scale evaluation, strategies to identify critical source areas, optimization strategies for placement of best management practices (BMPs), social component in watershed modeling, machine learning algorithms to address water quality problems in complex natural systems concomitant with spatial heterogeneity, establishing a total maximum daily loads (TMDLs), remote sensing in monitoring water quality, and developing water quality index are discussed. Next, the existing barriers to improve water quality are classified into primary and secondary impediments. A detail discussion of three primary impediments (climate change, urbanization and industrial activities, and agriculture) and ten secondary impediments (availability of water quality data, complexity of system, lack of skilled person, environmental legislation, fragmented mandate, limitation in resources, environmental awareness, resistance to change, alteration of nutrient ratio by river damming, and emerging pollutants) are illustrated. Finally, considering all the existing knowledge gaps pertaining to contemporary strategies, a future direction of water quality research is outlined to significantly improve the water quality around the globe.
Best management practices, Climate change, Critical source areas, Eutrophication, Machine learning algorithms, Remote sensing, Urbanization, Water quality criteria, Water quality index