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In Forensic science international

OBJECTIVE : The teeth have been used as a supplementary tool for sex differentiation as they are resistant to post-mortem degradation. The present study aimed to develop a new novel informatics framework for predicting sex from linear tooth dimension measurements achieved from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images.

METHOD AND MATERIALS : A clinical workflow using different machine learning methods was employed to predict the sex in the present study. The CBCT images of 485 subjects (245 men and 240 women) were evaluated for sex differentiation. Nine parameters were measured in both buccolingual and mesiodistal aspects of the teeth. We applied our dataset to Naïve Bayesian (NB), Random Forest (RF), and Support Vector Machine (SVM) as classifiers for prediction. Genetic feature selection was used to discover real features associated with sex classification.

RESULTS : The 10-fold cross-validation results indicated that NB had higher accuracy than SVM and RF for sex classification. The genetic algorithm (GA) indicated that the model could fit the data without using the enamel thickness and pulp height. The average classification accuracy of our clinical workflow was 92.31 %.

CONCLUSION : The results showed that NB was the best method for sex classification. The application of the first molar teeth in sex prediction indicated an acceptable level of sexual classification. Therefore, these odontometric parameters can be applied as an additional tool for sex determination in forensic anthropology.

Esmaeilyfard Rasool, Paknahad Maryam, Dokohaki Sonia


Automated classification, Cone beam computed tomography, Dental measurement, Forensic odontology, Machine learning, Sex classification